Digital manufacturing offers the promise of improved productivity, sustainability, and quality through the leverage of manufacturing simulations, information management, and real-time controls. This panel discussion investigates the top priorities from end users and solution providers including topics such as knowledge re-use, change and configuration management, pre-launch performance verification, and multi-faceted process design. The panelists also comment on the next biggest advances in digital manufacturing and their interpretation of the most significant upcoming technologies with promise for acceleration of digitization in manufacturing.
Collaborative Product Development Associates (CPDA) has completed an industry scorecard and benchmark assessing the relative positions of leading users and the maturity of their digital manufacturing practices. The scorecard captures input from industry leaders and ranks the companies across five broad categories. The digital manufacturing scorecard seeks to establish a framework of common terminology for integration and optimization of the diverse activities currently fragmenting manufacturing design efforts. The scorecard successfully captures the maturity levels for digital manufacturing across companies and industries. By implementing the best practices documented in this report, companies can transform their business by reducing costs and offering greater product variety.
The tools that comprise a simulation framework are rapidly evolving and maturing. Leading companies are implementing these tools to enable what they call "digital product development" or "simulation-driven design," but adoption has been slow and analysts have sometimes resisted using the tools. This paper is derived from Keith Meintjes’ presentation at PLM Road Map 2010, where he highlighted approaches and techniques to overcome the cultural resistance and to fully capitalize on current and future technology developments. Case studies are examined, and success criteria for project planning and deployment, and for rapid realization of benefits, are analyzed.
Historically, mechatronic development teams have worked in separate silos, with distinct development time lines, processes, and tool chains. Today, time pressures force teams to work together in parallel, which in turn requires fundamental changes in the approach to product development. Teams must target the building of an integrated tools and process platform from the users' perspective. Since no one vendor will provide all the tools in the tool chain, openness and the ability to integrate tools from multiple vendors are fundamental characteristics needed in the platform. The Jazz Integration Architecture targets the goal of "enabling diverse tools to be used together providing an integrated experience to their users." To help fulfill the vision of the Jazz platform, the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) initiative defines a standard set of protocols for interoperability between tools, data, and workflow.
The integration of embedded software into the overall product lifecycle for Mechatronic systems will transform product development for today's complex offerings. To understand the challenges and strategies for success, Collaborative Product Development Associates (CPDA) has completed an industry scorecard assessing the relative positions of leading users and the maturity of their embedded software integration practices. The scorecard identifies best practices, issues, and priorities for integrating embedded software into Mechatronic systems and assesses five broad categories and twenty-four criteria during comprehensive discussions with end users. Scorecard participants included representatives from the automotive, industrial machinery, consumer goods, and aerospace and defense industries. The survey shows a keen awareness across multiple industries of the need to integrate embedded software practices with the mechanical and electrical domains. This ensures consistency across the engineering design and development activities for products with increasing Mechatronic content.
Embedded systems have been growing in complexity for decades. Engineers rely increasingly on efficient tools and processes to manage interactions and provide systems engineering solutions that regularly cross domain boundaries. As numerous end-users confirmed in interviews, IBM Rational tools based on Jazz, centered on Rational Team Concert, solve many issues in systems development. Jazz is IBM Rational's open enterprise platform for data integration and collaboration among tools. This publication highlights leading users who are leveraging IBM Rational solutions for the execution of embedded systems development. It confirms the strength and potential for the platform and introduces Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC), which provides integration potential by offering standards-based definitions of interfaces to data leveraged throughout the development lifecycle.
Leading vendors gathered to discuss critical issues companies face as they try to leverage simulation across the full product lifecycle, at PLM Road Map™ 2010. The automation of simulation tasks and processes can improve the response time and quality of simulations, but these automations can be expensive to create and difficult to sustain. Automations range from the intricate details of a CAE engineer's task, such as the representation of a bolt in a finite element model, to workflows involving multiple people, and to overall product program management. Companies now face a choice of deploying tools that allow sophisticated users to create their own automations, or to develop custom tools that can be used by engineers who are not experts in specific CAE applications. Companies have used automations to make complex tasks routine, and to reduce response time from months to days, or even hours. Vendors describe such successes, and provide guidance on strategies for automation and how to overcome barriers to deployment.
Systems engineering is transitioning from a document-based approach to a model-based approach. With model-based systems engineering (MBSE), emphasis is placed on defining, managing, and controlling a coherent model of the system that can then be reflected in systems engineering documentation covering specifications, interface controls, system design, trade studies, and analysis reports. This report provides an overview of the benefits of model-based systems engineering over a document-based approach. It also highlights how OMG SysML™ supports MBSE to flow down requirements from the mission level to the system design and to the hardware and software components. Several of the lessons learned from early applications of MBSE using SysML are also covered. This report is based on Sanford Friedenthal's presentation at PLM Road Map™ 2009.
The full development of simulation technology will transform product development - slashing time to market, raising quality, and optimizing solutions to best fit customer and market requirements. To track the progress in achieving these objectives, CPDA has completed an industry scorecard assessing the relative positions of leading edge users and the maturity of their design simulation practices. Reflecting the participation of twenty-five leading edge users in the industry, the scorecard ranks companies in each of three areas - cross-functional capabilities, computer-aided engineering (CAE), and computer-aided test (CAT). Detailed discussions covered twenty criteria. Five involve cross-functional capabilities while eight apply specifically to CAE and seven to CAT.
The DoD CREATE program has identified meshing and geometry model building as critical in the transformation from a model to actual analysis. (CREATE is an acronym for Computational Research & Engineering for Acquisition Tools & Environments.) Three problems must be dealt with to bring high-end analysis into the early-stage design process. First, significant issues come up concerning the CAD environment that relate to the methods to systematically transform geometry and to automate meshing. A geometry abstraction layer will offer many benefits. Second, software tool systems must be brought together for optimal impact. Finally, we must improve our ability to anticipate and address the critical issues that can cause everything to fall apart. Clear encapsulation or separation in the code addresses the need to avoid the "be-all/end-all" solution for all people. A technology sharing partnership, the Meshing and Geometry Innovation Collaboration, MAGIC, unites government, commercial industry, and academia to address all three problems in a joint effort to bring innovation to the transition of product geometry models into meshing and analysis.
Design and engineering processes for electrical and electronic systems follow domain-specific approaches to data capture, change management, and requirements management. This report outlines challenges that leading automotive OEMs and Tier One manufacturers face when automating their electrical and electronic design and engineering processes using advanced mechatronics solutions. Approaches of different OEMs are compared. Recommendations for the planning of mechatronics solutions and process transformations, as well as pitfalls to avoid, are outlined in the report.
For CAE analysts doing finite element analysis, their world revolves around a CAD/CAE iterative cycle of model, mesh, analyze, and manually update models based on CAE results; then repeat. Integrated CAD and CAE applications with associative update, together with automatic meshing algorithms, have reduced the amount of time users have needed to perform these iterations. Even so, roadblocks still occur. Between receiving the CAD model from design engineering, and execution of a meshing algorithm, CAE analysts overwhelmingly report the need to do MODEL CLEAN UP. User intervention is necessary to both resolve topological inaccuracies in CAD data such as closing gaps and eliminating sliver surfaces, and to reduce model complexity by eliminating small holes and fillets. CPDA recently conducted a survey of end users to more accurately assess the extent of the current problem and its impact on product cycle time. These end users report a mixed opinion of their experiences and their satisfaction level with their current solutions.
SimEnterprise from MSC Software now serves roughly twenty major users, representing a significant lead over competitors in establishing a design/simulation framework. Building directly on its strength in simulation, SimManager and SimXpert have established a major competitive advantage in integrating with design as well as across multiple disciplines in simulation. To its credit, MSC Software has evolved from a traditional CAE application supplier, to a fully competitive enterprise solution provider of Simulation Data and Process Management. Early this year, MSC Software hosted the Design/Simulation Council for presentations on enterprise simulation by Doug Peterson and Ted Pawela. This report is based on the discussions arising from those sessions. The strong presentations began with Doug reviewing desktop productivity capabilities of the framework, followed by Ted's comments on enterprise functions.
SysML™ holds the promise of leveraging generic templates and processes across design and simulation. SysML is the Object Management Group's System Modeling Language that supports graphical modeling based on UML2 for specifying, designing, analyzing, and verifying complex systems. This review updates the latest efforts at Georgia Tech to apply this approach in various domains, including specific examples with a top-tier automotive supplier, to enhance modularity and reusability through a unified method that links diverse models. It also highlights the capabilities of SysML's parametrics and usage for physics-based analysis, including integrated CAD-CAE and simulation-based requirements verification.
The Delphi design and development framework encompasses Design for Six Sigma with many tool sets, including simulation. Particularly critical, three initiatives target core engineering excellence, which all focus on managing variation – Design for Six Sigma, analytical design confirmation covering integrated analysis and test, and dimensional management. Design for Six Sigma shifts the effort on controlling variation forward, up front to the development effort, well ahead of production where it has in the past had the most impact in terms of both quality and cost. Dimensional management enables robust design to be insensitive to process variation.
Simulation Data and Process Management, or SDPM, represents a critical element of a broader strategy that must address process management and optimization, multi-disciplinary collaboration, and the full integration of simulation software applications in product development. CPDA conducted an in-depth analysis of the SDPM offerings from Altair, CoMeT Solutions, ESI, Fluent, MSC, and Siemens UGS and evaluated their approaches. The review first differentiated the capabilities of their frameworks during both the conceptual and detailed design phases and then evaluated their specific simulation data management aspects. Overall, vendors have made significant progress in providing advanced tools for simulation data and process management. The unrecognized chaos of simulation data scattered across individual desktops should be fully organized with an effective SDPM approach.
Embedded software development needs to be integrated with PLM processes and solutions. This report outlines seven areas of priority as discussed with a dozen leading manufacturers, and highlights their current levels of capability and maturity in those areas.
Design for Six Sigma strategies transform our methodologies for improving quality from inspecting defects after-the-fact to building quality into the product from the beginning of the design. The cost of poor quality becomes part of the design equation, along with the warranty, liability, recall, lost customer, and rework costs. The cost of the product should include all of the quality issues, with optimizations targeting the total cost up front, early in the design. DFSS considers the statistical contribution of the design parameters to the critical requirements. The effects of variation can be identified, understood, and forecast during the design cycle. CAE analyses should include a robust assessment of known sources of variation. The sigma quality level must be calculated given the target performance and variation. Adoption of the DFSS process mitigates the risks and costs of poor quality.
In general, automotive led aerospace across four of the six categories reviewed. Their motivation to automate simulation processes may be higher due to the recurring analysis applied to many similar models, justifying the investment. The aerospace industry tends to develop new methodologies and tools for a project due to the rapid evolution of technology between programs, the availability of new materials, new concepts in the structure, and changes in the certification processes.
Bombardier Aerospace has defined a clear and effective vision based on extensive experience replacing manual processes for wire harnesses with integrated ECAD and PLM systems, across engineering, operations, and technical publications. Bombardier's vision targets one database for all functions, instead of each division having a proprietary database with no electronic interface between divisions. With the objective of clearing away all manual tasks and reducing errors, Bombardier wants to eliminate the physical mock-up, by flattening the 3D CAD models to generate the formboards/jigboards. Significant change impacting the organization poses many challenges. Nancy Atkins surmounted those barriers by assembling a team representing both the business users and the IT organization, with direct participation from manufacturing, engineering wiring design, customer support, and technical publications; they were seen as experts across all domains. Throughout the program it became clear that you can never have too much communication.
Twenty companies to date have participated in a scorecard assessing their level of maturity with respect to simulation in six critical areas. The survey shows strong progress over the recent past, and many companies have established development efforts at the leading edge. Most often, however, the efforts have not yet been consistently applied across the firms.
VCOR, the Value Chain Operations Reference model, helped ATI Technologies hit the ground running. VCOR successfully and quickly modeled processes to achieve consensus on current business practices, to perform cycle-time analyses, and to design a reliable metrics system for continuous improvement in New Product Introduction (NPI). ATI is a leading fabless semiconductor company with market leadership in graphics and media processing. The reference model normalized semantics and supported an integrated solution. The tool used, ValueScape, helped to maximize the business process information collected, to organize and analyze the information more efficiently. Establishing a common metric system was absolutely critical to continuing ATI's business process improvement.
The UGS Aerospace Special Interest Group (ASIG) includes ten active member companies from both the aerospace and automotive sectors. Members meet regularly to share product developments, support processes, and techniques. The number-one CAE issue facing ASIG firms today directly concerns the elimination of manual re-entry and reinterpretation of engineering data in the CAE workflow. In CAE data management, requirements can be organized into fourteen areas that are reviewed in the report, and provide guidance to tool developers in addressing these needs. There is a sense of urgency among ASIG members. Although integrated engineering data management has been a goal for a number of years, it is more critical now. Both tool and process integration are needed.
Traditional organizational approaches and tools no longer support the need in design/simulation to drive down product development cycle times. Companies face a major cultural change in capturing and leveraging the knowledge of the experts of each discipline. Moreover, a design and simulation framework must host all simulation data, processes, and tools, and maintain a tight integration with design in terms of both data and processes. SimManager from MSC Software scores with a major step forward in extending the vision for a Design/Simulation framework. Discussions with several customers involved with implementing the framework suggest that MSC Software has progressed further and faster with the framework than most would expect, given the relatively recent series of announcements on the offerings.
With simulation-based design, simulation serves as the primary means of design evaluation and verification. After decades of advances in computing technologies, CAD and CAE now provide many of the ingredients needed to support simulation-based design. However, their full realization places additional requirements on the simulation processes carried out that current CAD/CAE products and industrial practices do not readily meet. This report is derived and updated from Dr. Mark Shephard's presentation to the Design/Simulation track at CPDA's PLM Road Map conference.
The electro-optic payload team at the Aerospace Corporation takes a holistic approach to engineering electro-optical sensors. A small, highly interactive team of lead engineers work with lead customer representatives to develop a balanced design that meets its most critical performance requirements and resource constraints. In concurrent sessions, they review every aspect of the sensor design together, in enough depth that everyone knows the next round of action items. One integrated team produces one product. Then everyone goes offline to work in the normal way using their usual design tools to do the detailed engineering work. Working this way produces more thorough and detailed designs in a shorter period of time.
Gareth Evans has helped HP pioneer the notion of using Business Process Management in product development. Here he shares with us HP's lessons in applying DCOR, a design chain operations reference model, to drive continuous improvement in product development. In one program, time-to-market product launch at the regional level was reduced by 25% during the first phase, and another 81% on a second phase. This paper is derived from Mr. Evans' presentation at PLM Road Map" 2005, Collaborative Product Development Associates' annual conference.
The integration of electrical and mechanical components remains a challenge for manufacturing companies. Design of electronic system controls places demands on the product development process of "connecting" electronic components throughout a product structure. Those links are supported by wire/cable harness connections. A CPDA study assesses current harness development processes and highlights improvements that are needed in linking requirements to design validation, better 2D schematic integration with 3D routing design, increased use of design validation applications, and support for more robust multiple configuration designs.
Christian Verstraete shares his lessons to be learned from HP's ongoing supply chain optimization. First, a new global team reorganized the supply chains supporting over eighty divisions into five groups. Second, two initiatives focused on optimizing design - for the supply chain as well as for the customer - and on linking demand directly with supply. Third, HP now recognizes four types of suppliers for creating value, depending upon the relationship: Cost-Focused, Collaborative, Non-Confrontational, and Aggressive. HP also recognizes five types of collaboration: Traditional Procurement, Collaborative Procurement, Supply Chain Collaboration, Value Chain Integration, and Sustainable Partnerships.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) knowledge reuse requires an abstract analysis model; a single representation that can be tied to multiple design iterations. The information remains independent from the actual geometry of the part, and the particular solver to be used. With Simmetrix, the analysis abstract model controls and guides direct access to the CAD geometry to create a simulation model instance. Simmetrix tools then automatically generate the mesh and run-ready data to create the execution layer. Visteon, John Deere, and Whirlpool have all implemented a range of very different programs based upon abstract models in Computational Fluid Dynamics to realize major benefits.
Federated Enterprise Reference Architecture (FERA) provides a comprehensive methodology for reconciling business process management (BPM) with service-oriented architecture (SOA). In this report, a four-step approach based on FERA is described and illustrated, as implemented in practice in a complex collaborative process for supply chain collaboration.
A survey of major industrial companies participating in the Design/Simulation Council identified the challenges facing a design/simulation framework, as well as their interest in pursuing pilots. The common issues of concern shared by nearly all participating include simulation-based design, requirements to performance verification, support of in-house standardized practices and industry best practices, time reduction for the preparation of analysis data, and automated meshing techniques applied to structural analysis and other disciplines.
A comprehensive framework for managing the process of product development, CDS (Chrysler Design System) directly reconciles deliverables and their gate exit criteria with the tasks required to produce those deliverables across all activities and phases of development. A critical value, CDS directly links management with operations. The new version, CDS 5.0, will extend the framework for metrics-based program management. CDS 5.0 has a potential to give DaimlerChrysler strategic competitive advantage through metrics-driven collaborative product development.
Strategic sourcing is a four-step strategy that helps manufacturing companies achieve roughly ten percent of direct material cost reduction at each implementation iteration. However, it comes with significant challenges, foremost cultural ones. The strategy for achieving convergent sourcing is outlined in this paper, and requirements for a technology solution as a catalyst of change are defined and categorized.
Traditional management approaches, typically applicable for repeatable, stable, and high-volume processes, backfire when applied to product development, which is non-linear, and based on processes involving collaborative control rather than on discrete transactions. A systems-modeling approach is better suited to non-deterministic processes, where clusters of activities are modeled at higher levels of abstraction.Less is known about how to evaluate the effectiveness of collaborative control-based business processes guiding product development. A general approach is to apply options methods from the financial markets to compute the Real Program Value (RPV), the true investment value of a development program. Real Earned Value (REV) provides a consistent evaluation method that focuses the team on the real value of product development efforts relative to current market conditions. It provides an objective methodology to build consensus and confidence. Note that the approach is not based directly on detail, but builds the level of confidence of the team by concentrating on the most relevant metrics – estimates of the cost-to-complete and of critical risks.
To meet the challenge for improved process flows and methodologies, Delphi Corporation has developed a suite of CAD/CAM methodologies that yield higher quality CAD data that is both easier to change and much more usable in design and downstream functions. Delphi’s Horizontal Modeling (HM) and its related manufacturing Digital Process Design (DPD) methodologies have proven themselves in production environments across Delphi divisions since 1999 to enable the rapid creation of flexible 3D design models, manufacturing 3D master process models, and their associated 2D drawing process sheets. Together, these methodologies enable the control and instant propagation of design changes throughout the enterprise, cutting design and edit time by 75 to 90% and fostering a documented $2.5 Million in annual savings at a single Delphi division.
Trade exchanges based on the Extended Enteprise approach have experienced dismal adoption rates in networked product development and supply chain management. According to the latest D.H. Brown Associates, Inc. research results, Federated Enterprise technology offers a breakthrough opportunity for enhanced collaboration in the supply chain. Potential impacts of the findings on IT strategists and planners is immediate and significant. The study reviews both approaches and correpsonding architectures outlining the implications to the adoption rate of the private and public trade exchanges.
Sourcing solutions in the automotive industry are characterized by a diversity of implementation approaches. Automotive OEMs focus mostly on the capabilities that provide decision support for parts reuse and product content management, while Tier One and Tier Two suppliers maintain a stronger focus on automating the sourcing process. Both groups share a goal of better controlling the program cost drivers and integrating warranty management with contract management activities. but neither group has developed significant synergies between engineering and procurement organizations. But, pressure is mounting to change current practices. The dominant direction for change is toward linking activities in procurement and product development and in sharing overall program objectives among all value chain constituents. New Internet interoperability and collaborative protocol advances spur the progress of the value chain convergence approach, which is a viable alternative to the point solution integration approaches available from PDM, ERP, and e-sourcing vendors. Two critical issues currently surround sourcing solutions in the automotive industry: a) The automotive industry has not built up maturity in its use of advanced technology solutions. b) Sourcing solutions are expected to integrate with engineering, commercial, and operations management systems in order to provide uncluttered work environments for all parties involved in sourcing.
The automotive industry has enjoyed a steady rise in demand, yet profit levels have been shrinking. New efficiencies are sought across the manufacturing network. One solution is clear: The role of tiered suppliers will have to evolve from being a mere cost center to a real value added enabler of profitable networks. A similar transition happened in the electronics industry. Agile Software was at the forefront of enabling the transition of electronics manufacturing service providers. Agile is now poised to bring similar solutions to the tiered suppliers in the automotive industry. This paper outlines the challenges to the industry and how Agile plans to address them.
Direct interviews with 27 individuals from 17 worldwide consumer electronics companies reveal deep concerns over the cultural and organizational barriers to leading-edge technology with the implementation of solutions targeting Product Lifecycle Management (PLM). Some companies attempted to jump immediately in their planning cycle to the benefits of the technology, rather than beginning with the maturity of their organization. They discovered that the starting point was generally wrong. Starting with a maturity assessment supports a high-level understanding of the risks and capabilities and the demands that face the culture and organization.That approach provides a far better concept for evaluating benefits and solution sets, then defining implementation road maps. Organizational and process maturity represent more important determinants of success than technology.
Supply-chain collaboration continues to evolve as a critical element of product value creation. Interviews with fifty-one decision makers uncover current issues and opportunities. The three leading business benefits at this time are faster time-to-market, inventory reduction, and lower procurement costs. But end-user readiness and solution implementation have not pushed current technology to its limits. This report looks at seven key processes: design collaboration, strategic sourcing, program management, problem reporting and resolution, engineering change orders, release coordination, and product phase-out. It also evaluates the current technology and defines opportunities for more effective collaboration across the supply chain.
Matra Datavision embarks into the millennium armed with a new CAS.CADE 2.0 product release for geometry-based application development, as well as a new focus on the "Engineering Solutions and Services" segment of the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) market. Within Matra, a reinvigorated CAS.CADE P&L center will lead efforts to address the needs of an evolving market for custom and proprietary geometry-based applications. The CAS.CADE 2.0 product suite -- released in November, 1998 -- contains major competitive differentiators of an intelligent application user interface tools for display and geometry selection; a 2D sketcher; and an expansive 2D and 3D geometry modeling foundation with an unprecedented high-end freeform surface capability.
CIMdata’s PLM Benefits Appraisal Guide is designed to help potential PLM users evaluate the applicability and payoffs of PLM in their enterprise, and to help existing users of PLM monitor the impact it is having on their product programs.
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